GATIGNO, family of rabbis and scholars that first appeared in Spain and Portugal in the 14th century and settled in Turkey after the expulsion. Some consider the name to derive from the French province of Gatines. EN SOLOMON ASTRUC of Barcelona, called the "kadosh," is regarded as one of the first members of this family, but others cast doubt upon his connection with them. He was the author of the commentary on the Pentateuch called Midreshei ha-Torah, apparently composedafter 1376. Some identify him with Ezra B. SOLOMON, while others maintain that Ezra was his son, who lived in the second half of the 14th century in Saragossa and Acrimonte. Ezra wrote a supercommentary (still in manuscript) on Abraham ibn Ezra's commentary to the Pentateuch, explaining his exegesis and his homiletical interpretations. ḤAYYIM BEN SAMUEL GATIGNO was among the exiles from Spain in 1492 who reached Italy. He worked in Rome as a copyist between the years 1542 and 1553 and then as a proofreader in Cremona. From the beginning of the 18th century members of the family are found especially in Smyrna and Salonika. ELIAKIM BEN ISAAC GATIGNO served as rabbi of Smyrna, where he died in 1795. He was the author of: To'afot Re'em (Smyrna, 1762), an exposition of Elijah Mizraḥi 's supercommentary to Rashi; responsa, Agurah be-Ohalekha (Salonika, 1781), which include responsa taken from manuscripts by David b. Zimra (Radbaz), Isaac Escapa, and Abraham ha-Kohen of Safed, and appended to the volume are passages which he omitted from the To'afot Re'em; and Yiẓḥak Yerannen (ibid., 1786), glosses to Maimonides' Mishneh Torah. Eliakim's son, ISAAC, was the author of: Beit Yiẓḥak (ibid., 1792), also glosses to the Mishneh Torah; Beit Mo'ed (ibid., 1839), novellae to the tractates Mo'ed Katan and Makkot with additions by his pupil Ḥayyim Palache , who also wrote an introduction to the work; and Mi-Yagon le-Simḥah (ibid., 1795), a commentary on the laws of mourning (nos. 1–32) of meir of rothenburg . Among the rabbis of this family who served in Salonika during the 18th and 19th centuries are: ḤAYYIM ABRAHAM BEN BENVENISTE, kabbalist, a pupil of solomon amarillo , and the author of Tirat Kesef (ibid., 1736), sermons on the weekly scripture portions; and Ẓeror ha-Kesef (ibid., 1756), responsa, glosses, and novellae on the Shulhan Arukh, talmudic themes, and on the Mishneh Torah. These were published by BENVENISTE (Mercado), son of Ḥayyim Abraham, with an introduction and additions. Benveniste was the author of a halakhic work, Terumat ha-Kesef, which, together with a work by his son Abraham, Elef Kesef, was published with the comprehensive title Maẓref le-Kesef (1867). ABRAHAM BEN BENVENISTE GATIGNO was elected ḥakham bashi ("chief rabbi") of Salonika in 1875. He died in 1895. He was the author of the responsa Ẓel ha-Kesef (1872) to which are appended ten homilies. Abraham was the founder of the first modern Jewish school in the town. BENVENISTE BEN MOSES was the author of homilies on the Torah which were published together with additions by his son JUDAH under the title, Meḥushakim Kesef (1839). Judah's son SAMUEL (d. 1885) was a dayyan in Salonika. -BIBLIOGRAPHY: S. Eppenstein (ed.), Midreshei ha-Torah (1899), introd.; A. Freimann (ed.), Inyanei Shabbetai Ẓevi (1912), 147 nos. 142, 146; M. Steinschneider, Gesammelte Schriften, 1 (1925), 1–8; Baer, Urkunden, 1 (1929), 579f.; B. Wachstein, Mafte'aḥ ha-Hespedim, 1 (1922), 18, 24, 31, 54, 62; 2 (1927), 3, 25, 31, 41; 3 (1930), 4, 18, 50, 63, 84; 4 (1932), 33; I.S. Emmanuel, Maẓẓevot Saloniki (1963), no. 531; Molḥo and Amarijlio, in: Sefunot, 2 (1958), 55f.; Saloniki Ir va-Em be-Yisrael (1967), 15, 19, 77. (Yehoshua Horowitz)

Encyclopedia Judaica. 1971.

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